AIR POLLUTION PDF

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health-harmful PM air pollution – particularly from diesel vehicles, diesel . presinescinmett.ga 6. PDF | Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it. The impact of air pollution on children. 6. Foreword. It causes miscarriages, early delivery, and low birth weight. It contributes to diseases that.


Air Pollution Pdf

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This paper estimates the global damage costs of air pollution over a year centers and indoor air pollution from burning of solid fuel indoors are included. Air Pollution: • what it means for your health. • the public information service. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs in partnership with the. Air Pollution. Mengesha Admassu,. Mamo Wubeshet. University of Gondar. In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center .

Primary pollutants are usually produced by processes such as ash from a volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhausts or sulphur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact.

Ground level ozone is a prominent example of secondary pollutants. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. Before flue-gas desulphurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulphur dioxide.

Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: 1 greenhouse effect, 2 particulate contamination , 3 increased UV radiation, 4 acid rain, 5 increased ground-level ozone concentration, 6 increased levels of nitrogen oxides. Thermal oxidisers are air pollution abatement options for hazardous air pollutants HAPs , volatile organic compounds VOCs , and odorous emissions.

Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activity include: Carbon dioxide CO 2 — Because of its role as a greenhouse gas it has been described as "the leading pollutant" [5] and "the worst climate pollution". Clean Air Act is deemed to regulate CO 2 emissions. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, and their combustion generates sulphur dioxide. Nitrogen oxides NOx — Nitrogen oxides, particularly nitrogen dioxide , are expelled from high temperature combustion, and are also produced during thunderstorms by electric discharge.

They can be seen as a brown haze dome above or a plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of several nitrogen oxides. One of the most prominent air pollutants, this reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. Carbon monoxide CO — CO is a colorless, odorless, toxic yet non-irritating gas.

Vehicular exhaust contributes to the majority of carbon monoxide let into our atmosphere. It creates a smog type formation in the air that has been linked to many lung diseases and disruptions to the natural environment and animals. In , more than half of the carbon monoxide emitted into our atmosphere was from vehicle traffic and burning one gallon of gas will often emit over 20 pounds of carbon monoxide into the air. Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming.

Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases because of their role in creating ozone and prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere.

This effect varies depending on local air quality. The aromatic NMVOCs benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia with prolonged exposure.

In contrast, aerosol refers to combined particles and gas. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols.

Averaged worldwide, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for approximately 10 percent of our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease, [14] altered lung function and lung cancer.

Particulates are related to respiratory infections and can be particularly harmful to those already suffering from conditions like asthma. Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs — harmful to the ozone layer ; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases which are released from air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol sprays, etc. On release into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere.

Here they come in contact with other gases and damage the ozone layer. This allows harmful ultraviolet rays to reach the earth's surface. This can lead to skin cancer, eye disease and can even cause damage to plants. Ammonia — emitted mainly by agricultural waste. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3.

It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.

Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In the atmosphere, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulphur to form secondary particles.

Secondary pollutants include: Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog.

Smog is a kind of air pollution. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.

Ozone O3 is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities largely the combustion of fossil fuel , it is a pollutant and a constituent of smog.

Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Persistent organic pollutants POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment. Sources There are various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for releasing pollutants into the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories.

Anthropogenic man-made sources Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro , Georgia in preparation for spring planting. Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, These are mostly related to the burning of multiple types of fuel. Stationary sources include smoke stacks of fossil fuel power stations see for example environmental impact of the coal industry , manufacturing facilities factories and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices.

In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung. Controlled burn practices in agriculture and forest management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters.

Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. Fumes from paint , hair spray , varnish , aerosol sprays and other solvents. These can be substantial; emissions from these sources was estimated to account for almost half of pollution from volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin in the s. Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space.

Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below Fertilized farmland may be a major source of nitrogen oxides. Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane , emitted by the digestion of food by animals , for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium.

It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking. Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires.

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These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutants—specifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compounds — to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants.

The VOC production from these species result in ozone levels up to eight times higher than the low-impact tree species.

These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant e. Staebler, and S. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics — Thomas, A. Herber, R.

Staebler, W. Leaitch, H. Schulz, K. Law, L. Marelle, et al. Ship emissions measurement in the Arctic by plume intercepts of the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen from the Polar 6 aircraft platform. Summary for policy-makers: Arctic climate issues Google Scholar Brioude, J.

Arnold, A. Stohl, M. Cassiani, D. Morton, P.

Seibert, W. Angevine, S. Evan, et al. Geoscientific Model Development 6: — Lack, E. Williams, D. Coffman, K. Hayden, B. Lerner, S. Li, I. Nuaaman, et al. Black carbon emissions from in-use ships: A California regional assessment. Lack, J. Winebrake, S.

Harder, J. Silberman, and M. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios. Karcher, and J. Endresen, I. Isaksen, G. Gravir, and E. Environmental impacts of an expected increase in sea transportation, with particular focus on oil and gas scenarios for Norway and northwest Russia.

Journal of Geophysical Research D Samset, G. Myhre, J.

Corbett, R. Minjares, D. Lack, and J. Environmental impacts of shipping in with a particular focus on the Arctic region. Hermansen, H. Grythe, M. Fiebig, K. Stebel, M. Cassiani, A. Baecklund, and A. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard—A harbinger of a more polluted Arctic? Air quality in Europe— Report. EEA Rep. Fuglestvedt, J. Samset, T. Berntsen, G. Hodnebrog, M. Eide, and T.

Climate penalty for shifting shipping to the Arctic. Environmental Science and Technology — Niemeier, J. Jungclaus, L. Emmons, P.

Local Arctic air pollution: Sources and impacts

Hess, J. Lamarque, S. Walters, and G. Ozone pollution from future ship traffic in the Arctic northern passages. Geophysical Research Letters L Johansson, J.

Kukkonen, A. Brink, J. Kalli, and T.

Air Pollution Calculations

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, M. Gauss, and H. Denier van der Gon.

Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Stohl, P. Quinn, C. Brock, J. Burkhart, J. Paris, G. Ancellet, H. Singh, et al. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Regional modeling of short-lived atmospheric pollutants aerosols, ozone in the Arctic.

Marelle, L. Thomas, J. Raut, K. Law, J. Johansson, A.

Roiger, H. Schlager, et al. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: From the local to the regional scale.

Petropavlovskikh, and S. Accessed 25 March Myhre, G. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S.

Air pollution

Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, et al. Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9: — Berntsen, J. Fuglestvedt, and G. Short-lived climate forcers from current shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic. Nilssen, L. Lindholt, M. Eide, S. Eide, and J. Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic.

Sofiev, H. Denier van der Gon, M. Kaasik, T. Ruuskanen, and J. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling. Marelle, J. Fast, J. Thomas, B. Weinzierl, K. Berg, A. Roiger, et al. Thomas, H. Schlager, K. Kim, A. Schafler, L.However, they suggest that petroleum extraction emissions are already impacting the pristine Arctic troposphere.

The reviewers also found suggestive evidence that exposure to PM2.

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Law, J. Further quantification of local Arctic emission impacts is needed. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made. EEA Rep. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhausts or sulphur dioxide released from factories. Authors and Affiliations. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms on walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants , soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen , dust, and mold.

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