Networked Life. 20 Questions and Answers. Networked Life. Access. Cited by Cited by . pp i-vi. Access. PDF; Export citation. Contents. pp vii-viii. Access. Networked Life Questions and AnswersMung ChiangPrinceton A Short Answer 5Consider an uplink transmission: multiple MSs trying. Networked Life 20 Questions And Answers Solutions And Answers Solutions [ PDF] [EPUB] presinescinmett.ga is a platform for academics to.
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No computer programming background is required, but students should be comfortable using computers and the Web, and accessing resources on the Internet.
The course is open to all majors and all levels. Check with your academic advisor in these programs to confirm exactly how you can count the course. PDF slides for all lectures will be provided, usually at least slightly in advance of the lecture itself. There will be two or three homework assignments.
These will include simple quantitative exercises, as well as essay questions, computer and web exercises. Collaboration on the homeworks is not permitted. There will be a midterm, and a final exam. We may have a quiz or two as well.
Networked Life : 20 questions and answers by Mung Chiang 4
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No notes for slide. Networked Life: How can the Internet Support Video? You Google anot-so-famous actor and get linked to a Wikipedia entry listing his recent moviesand popular YouTube clips. This bookis about formulating and answering these 20 questions. This book is about the networking technologies we use each day as well asthe fundamental ideas in the study of networks. And the analytic machineries are based onmathematical languages that people refer to as graph, optimization, game, andlearning theories.
This is an undergraduate textbook for a new course at Princeton University: Friends, Money, and Bytes. The course targets primarily juniorsin electrical engineering and computer science, but also seniors and beginninggraduate students as well as students from mathematics, sciences, economics, andengineering in general. This book weaves a diverse set of topics you would not normally see under 5. This begs a question: Neither does this book: This is not a typical textbook for another reason.
It does not start with general theories as do many books on these subjects, e. Instead it starts with concrete applications and practical answers, and sticks to them almost every step of the way. This book, when used as an undergraduate textbook, can be complemented with its website features: We created web features that turn this class into an online social network and a networked economy.
This book can also be used by engineers, technology managers, and pretty much anyone with a keen interest in understanding how social and technologi- cal networks work. In the undergraduate course taught at Princeton, almost none of the advanced material is covered. Covering all the advanced material sections would constitute an introductory graduate level course.
These references open the door to many worthwhile further readings, in- cluding textbooks, research monographs, and survey articles.
This is a relatively thin book. Each one of these 20 chapters deservesmany books for a detailed treatment. We only highlight a few key ideas in thespan of about 20 pages per chapter and 80 minutes per lecture. There are manyother mathematical languages in the study of networks, many other questionsabout a networked life, and many other types of networks that we do not havetime to cover in one semester.
But as the saying goes for a course: Questions that tickle our imag-ination with surprises and incomplete answers.
Questions that I wished I hadknown how to answer several years ago. Questions that are quickly becoming anessential part of modern education in electrical and computer engineering. But above all, we hope this book is fun to read.
It reminded me of my own sophomore year, one and half decade ago, at StanfordUniversity. I often biked to the surreally beautiful Oval in the morning and divedinto books of many kinds, most of which not even remotely related to my majors. As the saying goes, that was a pretty good approximation of paradise. That paradise usually ends together with the college years. So I have manyto thank for granting me a precious opportunity to indulge myself again at thismuch later stage in life.
Students in the graduate course ELEA also helped proofread the book draft and created multiple choice questions. National Science Foundation, in a program run by Darleen Fisher, for a team consisting of two engineers and two social scientists at Princeton.
And my appreciation traces back to many of my teachers. Their textbooks Convex Op-timization and Elements of Information Theory are two towering achievementsin engineering education.
When I was writing researchpapers with them, Tom would spend many iterations just to get one notationright, and Stephen would even pick out each and every LaTex inconsistency. The course was supposed to be on PDE.
Talking to Rorty drastically sharpenedmy appreciation of the pitfalls of mistaking representations for reality. Three more inspirations, from those I never met: Brevity is power.
And three decades ago, my grandfather wrote a text- book on econometrics at the age of seventy. For some reason, the many time commitments of a professor are often hard to compress. This book was written with my pen and their time. It starts with a taxonomy of the bookand introduces its organization and notation. Then it highlights three pedagogical principles guiding thebook: It concludes with anecdotes of arranging this course as a social andeconomic network itself.
Taxonomy and OrganizationThe target audience of this book are both students and engineering professional. For students, the primary audience are those from engineering, science, eco-nomics, operations research and applied mathematics, but also those on thequantitative side of sociology and psychology.
There are three ways to use this book as a textbook: Go through all 20 chapters without Advanced Material sections. This course serves as an in- troduction to networks before going further into senior level courses in four possible directions: Pick either the social and economic network chapters or the technology and economic network chap- ters, and go through Advanced Material sections in those chapters. Go through all 20 chapters including Advanced Material sections. While this book consists of 20 chapters, there are just 4 key recurring conceptsunderlying this array of topics.
Table 0. Figure 0. This book cuts across both networks among devices and networks among peo- ple. We examine networks among people that overlay on top of networks among devices, but also spend half of the book on wireless networks, content distribu- tion networks, and the Internet itself. We can also classify the 20 questions into three groups based on the stages of development in formulating and answering them: Eachnode is a chapter. Each directional link is a dependence relationship, e.
Not all chapters explicitly study the impact of network topology, e.
A quick word about the homework problems. There are 5 problems at the endof each chapter. These are a mixture of easy drills, simple extensions, challengingmini-research projects, and open-ended questions. We use italics to highlight important, subtle, or potentially confusing points.
We use boldface math symbols to denote vectors or matrices, e.
Vectors are column vectors by default. We do not use special fonts to represent sets. We use t to index iterations over continuous time, and [t] or [k] to index iterations over discrete time. The popular ones that appeared in the past decade or so fall into two main groups: Some of the widely read ones are: Two other books, while not exactly on networks, provide important insights to many topics in networking: On the graph-theoretic and economic side of networking, three excellent textbooks appeared in The latter two are more on the graduate level.
An earlier popular textbook is Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications by Wasserman and Faust. Two particularly popular ones are: Computer Networking: A Systems Approach by Peterson and Davie. On wireless com- munications, several textbooks in the last few years have become popular: As illustrated in Figure 0.
Each chapter is driven by a practical question or observation, but the answers or approximate answers are explained using the rigorous language of mathematics.
Roadmap xv Textbooks J. For example, understanding why WiFi works slower in hotspots is given as much attention as how Google auctions its ad spaces. These excellent courses have startedstructuring social and economic networking topics to undergraduates, and in-spired our course at Princeton. Of course, both computer networking and wirelesscommunications courses are standard, and sometimes required courses at manyuniversities CS and EE departments.
Principle 1: Just In Time JIT Models are often crippled by their own assumptions to start with, and end up being largely irrelevant to what they set out to enable. The material is arranged so that extensive mathematical machinery is introduced bit by bit, each bit presented just in time for the question raised. This might seem to be a rather unconventional way to write a textbook on the mathematical side of engineering. In contrast, this book hands out an ice-cream cone every minute along the way.
Hopefully the 3-year-old becomes very motivated to keep the journey going. This book is an experiment motivated by this hypothesis: A devoted sequence of lectures focusing exclusively or predominantly on the fundamental knowledge is not the only way to teach the material. Maybe we could also chop up the material and sprinkle it around.
The downside is that the standard trains of thought running through the mathematical foundation of research communities are interrupted many times. For example, the methodologies of optimization theory are introduced bit by bit: Roadmap xvii The methodologies of game theory are introduced bit by bit in this book: The methodologies of graph theory are introduced bit by bit: The methodologies of learning theory are introduced bit by bit: Principle 2: BTP Bridge Theory and Practice The size of the global industry touched upon by these 20 question is manytrillons of dollars.
Just the sum of market capitalizations of the 20 most relevantU. Some of these 20 questions are currently trapped in particularly deep theory-practice gaps, especially those hard-to-formulate questions in Chapters 5 and 6,and those hard-to-falsify answers in Chapters 7 and 8.
Reverse engineering, shown across many chapters, has its own share of accuratejokes: What is often unclear is whether the resulting answerable-questions are still relevant and the resulting tractable models still have predictive powers. Principle 3: This book itself is a network, a network of ideas living in nodes called chapters, and we grasp every opportunity to highlight each possible link between these nodes. This is what the book is about: We can extract the top 20 ideas across the chapters.
Resource sharing such as statistical multiplexing and fairness: Opinion aggregation and consensus formation: The fallacy of crowds cascade and contagion: Functional hierarchy and layering: Spatial hierarchy and overlaying: From local actions to global property: Overprovision capacity vs.
A node is a chapter, and a bidirectional link is an intellectual connection, via either similar concepts or common methodologies. Cliques of nodes and multipath paths from one node to another are particularly interesting to observe in this graph.
Feedback control: Utility maximization: Graph consistency models: Strategic equilibrium models: Generative model and reverse engineering: Latent factor models: Axiomatization models: And they also voted the key equa- tions in pagerank, distributed power control, and Bellman Ford as the top three equations.
Indeed, congestion control in TCP has been interpreted as a form of dynamic pricing in network access. Both types are observed in social networks and the latest generation of 4G and Two Bigger Pictures There are also two broader pictures in the backdrop of this book: And as much as metrics of a static graph are important, engineering protocols governing Roadmap xxi the functionalities of feedback, coordination, and robustness are just as crucial as the topological properties of the graph like degree distribution.
So this book is an experiment in both what to teach and how to teach in an electrical and computer engineering undergrad curriculum: And we believe the best way to drive home these ideas is to tie in with applications that teenagers, and many of the older folks, use every day.
We tweeted,we blogged, and we created wikis. After the last lecture,we drew the graph again.
There were several standard ways to earn nuggets,including catching typos in lecture notes and writing popular blogs. There were10 class activities beyond homework problems that were rewarded by nuggets,including one activity in which the students were allowed to download and sell theirhomework solutions using auctions.
The matching of students and class projecttopics was also run through bidding with nuggets. Eventually the nugget bal- It embodies a remarkable story of technology innova- tions.
It symbolizes the age of networked life. These phones have become the mobile, lightweight, smart centers of focus in our lives.
They are not just used for voice calls, but also for data applications: The cellular network in turn consists of the radio air-interface and the core network. We focus on the air- interface part in this chapter, and turn to the cellular core network in Chapter Terrestrial wireless communication started back in the s.
And cellular networks have gone through generations of evolution since the s, moving into what we hear as 4G these days. Back in the s, some estimated that there would be 1 million cellular users in the US by That turned out to be one of those under-estimations that did not even get close to the actual impact of networking technologies. Over more than three decades of evolution, the fundamental concept of cellular architecture has remained essentially the same.
The entire space of deployment is divided into smaller regions called cells , often represented by hexagons as in Figure 1. There is one base station BS in each cell, connected on the one side to switches in the core network, and on the other side the mobile stations MS assigned to this cell. An MS could be a smart phone, a tablet, a laptop with a dongle, or any device with antennas that can transmit and receive in the right frequencies following a cellular network standard.
This is in contrast to other types of wireless networks. Moreover, Why do we divide the space into smaller regions?
Because the wireless spec- trum is scarce and radio signals weaken over space.
Transmitting signals over the air means emitting energy over parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some part of the spectrum is unlicensed, like in WiFi as we will see in Chapter Other parts are licensed, like those for cellular networks, and a wireless service provider needs to download these rare resources with hefty prices. The spectrum for cellular networks is further divided into chunks, since it is much easier for transmitters and receivers to work with frequency bands with widths on the order of 10MHz.
The signals sent in the air become weaker as they travel over longer distances. The amount of this attenuation is often proportional to the square, or even the fourth power, of the distance traversed.
So, in a typical cellular network , the signals become too weak to be accurately detected after a couple of miles. All we need to do is to tesselate the frequency bands, as illustrated in Figure 1, so that no two cells share the same frequency band if they are too close.
In Figure 1. Cellular architecture enables the network to scale up over space.Next, a question and primary sources are provided, such as eyewitness historical accounts. Methods and Applications by Wasserman and Faust. It was not until the Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, during the late 17th and 18th century that the subject of Science was considered a respectable academic body of knowledge.
But it is still simple, and when the target SIRs can be simultaneously achieved,it has been proven to converge: Barzilai-Nahon also adds new terms and redefines old terms in the framework pp. Gates leans away from stories filled with figures and statistics and prefers stories that contain more of a narrative.
Here is a simple fact, which is important to realize and easy to verify: We also hope that the whole network reaches some desirable equilibrium as each player strategizes. When can I trust product ratings on site?
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